The references cited below are additional references that we believe will be of interest to readers. They supplement the citations in the text. These supplementary references are marked by a dagger in the text of the 5th edition.

Chapter 1

Page 1

T. Karasu, "The Specificity vs. Nonspecificity Dilemma: Toward Identifying Therapeutic Change Elements," American Journal of Psychiatry 143 (1986): 682-695.
D. Kivlighan, K. Multon, D. Brossart, "Helpful Impacts in Group Counselling: Development of a Multidimensional Rating System," Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 (1996): 347-355.
S. Bloch, "Therapeutic Factors in Group Psychotherapy," in APA Annual Review V (Washington, D.C.: APA Press, 1986), 679-698.

Page 2

W. Piper, A. Joyce, "A Consideration of Factors Influencing the Utilization of Time-Limited, Short-term Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 46 (1996): 311-328.
M. McCallum, W. Piper, J. O'Kelly, "Predicting Patient Benefit from a Group Oriented, Evening Treatment Program," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 291-314.

Page 3

B. Berzon and R. Farson, "The Therapeutic Event in Group Psychotherapy: A Study of Subjective Reports by Group Members," Journal of Individual Psychology 19 (1963): 204-212.

Page 15

D. Spiegel et al., "Effect of Psychosocial Treatment on Survival of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer," Lancet ii, (1989): 888-891.
C. Classen et al., "Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy and Distress in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial," Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (5): 494-501.
P. Goodwin et al., "The Effect of Group Psychosocial Support on Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer," The New England Medical Journal 345 (24): 1719-1726.

Page 17

M. Leszcz and J. Malat, "The Interpersonal Model of Group Psychotherapy," in Praxis der Gruppenpsychotherapie ed. V. Tschuschke (Frankfurt, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag Stutgartt Publishing, 2001), 355-369.

Page 18

A. Bandura, Social Learning through Imitation, (Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1962)

Chapter 2

Page 20

R. Stolorow, B. Brandschaft, G. Atwood, Psychodynamic Treatment: An Intersubjective Approach (Hillsdale, N.J.: Analytic Press, 1987).
F. Wright, "The Use of Self in Group Leadership: A Relational Perspective," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 181-198.

Page 21

J. Magnavita, "Introduction: The Growth of Relational Therapy," In Session: Psychotherapy and Practice, 56 (2000): 999-1004.

Page 22

E. Markson, "Depression and Moral Masochism," International Journal of Psychoanalysis 74 (1993): 931-940.

Page 23

G. Klerman, M. Weissman, B. Rounsaville, E. Chevron, Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression (New York: Basic Books, 1984).
E. Marziali, H. Munroe-Blum, Interpersonal Group Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder (New York: Basic Books, 1994).
D. Wilfley et al., Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Group (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
P. Crits-Christoph, "Psychodynamic Interpersonal Treatment of GAD," Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 9 (2002): 81-84.

Page 24

S. Barlow, G. Burlingame, A. Fuhriman, "Therapeutic Applications of Groups; from Pratt's 'Thought Control Classes' to Modern Group Psychotherapy," Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice 4 (2000): 115-134.
S. Holmes and D. Kivlighan, "Comparison of Therapeutic Factors in Group and Individual Treatment Processes," Journal of Counseling Psychology 47 (2000): 478-484.

Page 25

H. Chochinov, "Dignity-Conserving Care: A New Model for Palliative Care: Helping the Patient Feel Valued," JAMA 287 (2002): 2253-2260.

Page 30

P. Fonagy et al., "An Open Door Review of Outcome Studies in Psychoanalysis." London: International Psychoanalytical Association, 1999.

Page 42

J. Lichtenberg, "A Theory of Motivational-Functional Systems as Psychic Structures," Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36 (1988): 57-72.
M. Leszcz, "The Interpersonal Approach to Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42 (1992): 37-61.

Page 42

J. Gans and A. Alonso," Difficult Patients: Their Construction in Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 48 (1998): 311-326.

Chapter 3

Page 54

G. Burlingame, A. Fuhriman & J. Johnson, "Cohesion in Group Psychotherapy", in. A Guide to Psychotherapy
Relationships that Work, ed. J. Norcross (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Page 55

S. Tuttman, "Protecting the Therapeutic Alliance in This Time of Changing Health Care Delivery Systems," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 3-17.

Page 56

J. Rutan, "Growth through Shame and Humiliation," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 511-516.

Chapter 4

Page 78

K. MacKenzie, "Therapeutic Factors in Group Psychotherapy: A Contemporary View," Group 11 (1987): 26-30.

Page 90

P. Fonagy, "The Process of Change and the Change of Processes: What Can Change in a 'Good Analysis'" Keynote Address to the Spring Meeting of Division 39 of the American Psychological Association (New York, April 16, 1999).

Page 92

S. Foreman, "The Significance of Turning Passive into Active in Control Mastery Theory," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 5: 106-121.
J. Weiss, How Psychotherapy Works: Process and Technique (New York: Guilford Press, 1993).
G. Brown, L. Lemyre, A. Bifulco, "Social Factors in Recovery from Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Test of Specificity," British Journal of Psychiatry 161 (1992): 44-54.
A. MacLeod and R. Moore, "Positive Thinking Revisited: Positive Cognitions, Well-Being in Mental Health," Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 7 (2000): 1-10.

Page 102

M. Greenberg, "Cognitive Processing in Trauma: The Role of Intrusive Thoughts and Reappraisals," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 25 (1995): 1262-1295.
L. Calhoun et al., "A Correlational Test of the Relationship Between Post-Traumatic Growth, Religion and Cognitive Processing," Journal of Traumatic Stress 13 (2000): 521-523.

Page 104

I. Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1980).
W. Beardslee et al., "From Cognitive Information to Shared Meaning: Healing Principles in Prevention Intervention," Psychiatry 61 (1998): 112-129.
K. Gorey, N. Richter, E. Snider, "Guilt, Isolation and Hopelessness among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Effectiveness of Group Work Intervention," Child Abuse and Neglect 25 (2001): 347-355.

Page 107

E. Bordin, "The Generalizability of the Psychoanalytic Concept of the Therapeutic Alliance," Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 16 (1979): 252-260.

Page 108

M. Livingston, "Vulnerability, Tenderness and the Experience of Self Object Relationship: A Self Psychological View of Deepening Curative Process in Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 49 (1999): 19-40.

Chapter 5

Page 122

G. Psathas and R. Hardert, "Trainer Interventions and Normative Patterns in the T-Group," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 2 (1966): 149-169.

Page 126

I. Yalom, "Let the Patient Matter," in The Gift of Therapy (New York: Harper Collins, 2002), 26-29.
D. Kiesler, Contemporary Interpersonal Theory and Research (New York: J. Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1996).

Page 127

L. Horwitz, "Narcissistic Leadership in Psychotherapy Groups," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 219-235.

Page 129

L.Murphy, M.Leszcz, A.Collings, J.Salvendy, "The Experience of the Neophyte Group Therapist", International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(1996): 543-552

Page 129

M. Barrett, J. Berman, "Is Psychotherapy More Effective When Therapists Disclose Information About Themselves?" Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69 (2001): 597-603.

Page 134

E. Crouch, S. Bloch, J. Wanless, "Therapeutic Factors: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Mechanisms," in Handbook of Group Psychotherapy, ed. A. Fuhriman and G. Burlingame (New York: Wiley, 1994), 269-317.

Chapter 6

Also see, "Total Group Interventions: Other Views", an excerpt from Chapter 6 (4th edition).

Page 143

Y. Agazarian, "Contemporary Theories of Group Psychotherapy: A Systems Approach," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 42 (1992): 177-202.

Page 143

D. Kiesler, Contemporary Interpersonal Theory and Research (New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1996).

Page 144

R. Josselson, for example, elegantly describes 8 dimensions of relatedness that may be present in a psychotherapy group, and that exist along a continuum (excessive - appropriate - absent.) These include: Holding; Attachment; Passions; Validation; Idealization/Identification; Mutuality; Embeddedness; Caring. (R. Josselson, 2003, "The Space Between in Group Psychotherapy: Application of an Eight Dimensional Model," Group 27 (4): 203-221).

Page 153

R. Dies, "Group Psychotherapy," in Essential Psychotherapy, eds. A. Gurman and S. Messer (New York: Guilford Press, 1995), 488-522.

Page 155

D. Scaturo and W. McPeak, "Clinical Dilemmas in Contemporary Psychotherapy: The Search for Clinical Wisdom," Psychotherapy 35 (1998): 1-12.

Page 155

J. Kleinberg, "Beyond Emotional Intelligence at Work: Adding Insight to Injury through Group Psychotherapy," Group 24 (2000): 261-278.

Page 159

L. Ormont, "The Role of the Leader in Resolving Resistances to Intimacy in the Group Setting," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 38 (1988): 29-45.

Page 165

N. Brown, "Conceptualizing Process," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 53 (2003): 225-247.

Page 166

M. Leszcz and J. Malat, "The Interpersonal Model of Group Psychotherapy," in Praxis der Gruppenpsychotherapie, ed. V. Tschuschke (Frankfurt, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag Stutgartt Publishing, 2001), 355-369.

Page 171

J. Weiss, How Psychotherapy Works: Process and Technique (New York: Guilford Press, 1993).
S. Foreman, "The Significance of Turning Passive into Active in Control Mastery Theory," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 5 (1996): 106-121.

Page 184

J. Weiss, How Psychotherapy Works: Process and Technique (New York: Guilford Press, 1993).
M. Viederman, "Presence and Enactment as a Vehicle of Psychotherapeutic Change," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice Research 8 (1999): 274-283.
P. Fretter et al., "How the Patient's Plan Relates to the Concept of Transference," Psychotherapy Research 4 (1994): 58-72.

Page 185

A. Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: Freeman, 1997).

Page 199

L. Horwitz, "A Group Centered Approach to Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 27 (1977): 423-439.
K. Kibel and A. Stein, "The Group-as-a-Whole Approach: An Appraisal," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 31 (1981): 409-429.
W. Piper, "Discussion of 'Group as a Whole'," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 45 (1995): 157-162.

Chapter 7

Page 203

R. Stolorow, B. Brandschaft, G. Atwood, Psychoanalytic Treatment: An Intersubjective Approach (Hillsdale, N.J.: Analytic Press, 1987).

Page 203

J. Kolb, S. Cooper, G. Fishman, "Recent Developments in Psychoanalytic Technique: A Review," Harvard Review of Psychiatry 3 (1995): 65-74.
T. Karasu, "Conflict and Deficit: Toward an Integrative Vision of the Self," American Journal of Psychoanalysis 55 (1995): 279-288.

Page 208

M. Chemers, "Leadership Research and Theory: A Functional Integration," Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 4 (2000): 27-43.

Page 209

J. Gans, "Money and Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 42 (1992): 133-152.

Page 214

S. Wilkinson and G. Gabbard, "Therapeutic Self-Disclosure with Borderline Patients," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 2 (1993): 282-295.

Page 217

I. Yalom, "The Gift of Therapy," (New York, HarperCollins, N.Y. 2002) 75-102.
G. Stricker and M. Fisher, eds., Self-Disclosure in the Therapeutic Relationship (New York: Plenum Press, 1990).
M. Blechner, "Working in the Countertransference," Psychoanalytic Dialogues 2 (1992): 161-179.
W. Burke and M. Tansey, "Countertransference and Models of Therapeutic Activity," Contemporary Psychoanalysis 27 (1991): 351-384.

Page 218

M. Barrett and J. Berman, "Is Psychotherapy More Effective When Therapists Disclose Information About Themselves?" Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69 (2001): 597-603.

Page 219

S. Knox et al., "A Qualitative Analysis of Client Perceptions of the Effects of Helpful Therapist Self-Disclosure in Long-Term Therapy," Journal of Counseling Psychology 44 (1997): 274-283.

Page 223

B. Robbins, "Under Attack: Devaluation and the Challenge of Tolerating the Transference," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 9 (2000): 136-141.

Page 224

R. Waldinger, "Intensive Psychotherapy of Borderline Patients: An Overview," American Journal of Psychiatry 144 (1987): 267-274.

Page 228

H. Roback, "Adverse Outcomes in Group Psychotherapy: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Research Questions," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 9 (2000): 113-122.

Page 228

J. McCullough, Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) (New York: Guilford Press, 2000).

Chapter 8

Page 231

M. Leszcz, "Guidelines for the Practice of Group Psychotherapy," in Guidelines and Standards for the Psychotherapies, ed. P. Cameron, J. Ennis and J. Deadman (Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1998) 199-227.
P. Cameron et al., "The Practice and Roles of the Psychotherapies: A Discussion Paper." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44 (Supp.)(1999): 18S-31S.

Page 233

E. Mash and J. Hunsley, "Assessment Considerations in the Identification of Failing Psychotherapy: Bringing the Negatives out of the Darkroom," Psychological Assessment 5 (1993): 292-301.

Page 234

J. White and A. Freeman, eds., Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Specific Problems and Populations (Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 2000).

Page 234

R. Morgan and C. Winterowd, "Interpersonal Process-Oriented Group Psychotherapy with Offender Populations," International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology 46 (2002): 466-482.

Page 234

K. MacKenzie, Introduction to Time-Limited Group Psychotherapy (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1990).
H. Spitz, Group Psychotherapy and Managed Mental Health Care: A Clinical Guide for Providers (New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers, 1996).

Page 237

C. Rice, "Premature Termination of Group Therapy: A Clinical Perspective," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 46 (1996): 5-23.

Page 239

J. Rooney and R. Hanson, "Predicting Attrition from Treatment Programs for Abusive Men," Journal of Family Violence 16 (2001): 131-149.

Page 240

S. Kopta et al., "Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Time-Unlimited Psychotherapy," Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 62 (1994): 1009-1016.

Page 241

W. Stone, "Group Psychotherapy with the Chronically Mentally Ill," in Comprehensive Group Psychotherapy, eds. H. Kaplan and B. Sadock (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993), 419-429.

Page 248

J. Meresman, L. Horowitz, E. Bein, "Treatment Assignment, Dropout and Outcome of Depressed Patients Who Somaticize," Psychotherapy Research 5 (1995): 245-257.

Page 251

A. Goldstein, "Patients' Expectancies and Non-Specific Therapy as a Basis for (un)Spontaneous Remission," Journal of Clinical Psychology 16 (1960): 399-403.
H. Friedman, "Patient-Expectancy and Symptom Reduction," Archives of General Psychiatry 8 (1963): 61-67.
A. Goldstein and W. Shipman, "Patient Expectancies, Symptom Reduction, and Aspects of the Initial Psychotherapeutic Interview," Journal of Clinical Psychology 17 (1961): 129-133.
A. Goldstein, "Therapist and Client Expectation of Personality Change in Psychotherapy," Journal of Counseling Psychology 7 (1960): 180-184.
P. Martin and A. Sterne, "Prognostic Expectations and Treatment Outcome," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43 (1975): 572-576.
S. Bloch et al., "Patients' Expectations of Therapeutic Improvement and Their Outcomes," American Journal of Psychiatry 133 (1976): 1457-1459.
P. Crits-Christoph and M. Connolly, "Patient Pretreatment Predictors of Outcome," in Psychodynamic Treatment Research, ed. N. Miller, L. Luborsky, J. Barber, and J. Docherty (New York: Basic Books, 1993), 185.

Page 252

M. Leszcz and J. Malat, "The Interpersonal Model of Group Psychotherapy," in Praxis der Gruppenpsychotherapie, ed. V. Tschuschke (Frankfurt, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag Stutgartt Publishing, 2001), 355-369.

Chapter 9

Page 260

A "good fit" in individual therapy contributes to the successful launch of therapy. (R. MacKenzie et al., "Guidelines for the Psychotherapies in Comprehensive Psychiatric Care: A Discussion Paper," Canadian J Psychiatry 44 [1999]: 4S-17S; I. Elkin et al., "'Patient-Treatment Fit' and Early Engagement in Therapy," Psychotherapy Research 9 [1999]: 437-451) Some authors suggest that the "goodness of fit" in therapy serves a function as central to successful therapy as the mother-child "goodness of fit" serves in the child's development.(A. Dolinsky et al., "A Match Made in Heaven? A Pilot Study of Patient-Therapist Match," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 7 [1998]: 119-125.)
The therapeutic alliance, transference-countertransference, the real relationship and congruence between the client's personal explanation for his distress and the approach of the therapy all contribute to the client-therapist fit (Elkin, ibid).

Page 263

L. Foltz, J. Morn, J. Barber, "Self and Observer Reports, Interpersonal Problems in Therapy," Journal of Clinical Psychology 55 (1999): 27-37.
W. Piper et al., "Patient Personality and Time-Limited Group Psychotherapy for Complicated Grief," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 525-552.
J. Ogrodniczuk et al., "NEO-Five Factor Personality Traits as Predictors of Response to Two Forms of Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 53 (2003): 417-443.

Page 263

L. Benjamin, "Structural Analysis of Social Behavior," Psychological Review 81 (1974): 492-425.
L. Horowitz et al., "Inventory of Interpersonal Problems: Psychometric Properties and Clinical Applications," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56 (1988): 885-892.
L. Alden, J. Wiggins, A. Pincus, "Construction of Circumflex Scales for the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems," Journal of Personality Assessment 55 (1990): 521-536.
D. Kiesler, Contemporary Interpersonal Theory and Research (New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1996).
J. McCullough, Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000).

Page 268

Generally, the research procedure is to assign subjects to groups meeting for a predetermined number of times and to observe their behavior systematically. At this point, the researchers regroup the members into new groups according to the particular aspect of behavior under study. Since the bulk of the research has been done by nonclinicians, the attitudes and behavior are described in nonclinical, but nevertheless clinically relevant, terms. Subjects may thus be placed in groups according to whether they prefer high or low structure, or positive or negative affect, or whether they are active or passive or high or low participators, or assume or shun leadership. The trial groups may be discontinued at this point or serve as a control against which to compare the experimentally composed group.
R. Harrison, "Group Composition Models for Laboratory Design," Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 1 (1965): 409-432.

Page 272

W. Livesley and K. MacKenzie, "Social Roles in Therapy Groups," in Advances in Group Therapy, ed. R. Dies and K. Roy MacKenzie (New York: International Universities Press, 1983).
H. Kellerman, Group Psychotherapy and Personality: Intersecting Structures (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1979).
L. Stava and R. Bednar, "Process Outcome in Encounter Groups: The Effects of Group Composition," Small Group Behavior 10 (1979): 200-213.

Page 273

C. Taft et al., "Race and Demographic Factors in Treatment Attendance for Domestically Abusive Men," Journal of Family Violence 16 (2001): 385-400.
Z. Green and M. Stiers, "Multiculturalism and Group Therapy: The United States: A Social Constructionist Perspective," Group 26 (2002): 233-246.

Page 276

D. Kivlighan and M. Coleman, "Values, Exchange Relationships, Group Composition and Leader-Member Differences: A Potpourri of Reactions to Dose," Group Dynamic Theory, Research and Practice 3 (1999): 33-39.

Page 276

D. Jung and J. Sosik, "Effects of Group Characteristics on Work Group Performances: A Longitudinal Investigation," Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice 3 (1999): 279-290.
J. Dose, "The Relationship between Work Values Similarity and Team-Member and Leader-Member Exchange Relationships," Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice 3 (1999): 20-32.

Page 276

B. Barry and G. Stewart, "Composition, Process, and Performance in Self-Managed Groups: The Role of Personality," Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (1997): 62-78.

Page 277

J. Ogrodniczuk et al., "NEO-Five Factor Personality Traits as Predictors of Response to Two Forms of Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 53 (2003): 417-443.

Chapter 10

Page 281

N. Taylor et al., "A Survey of Mental Health Care Providers' and Managed Care Organization Attitudes toward Familiarity with, and Use of Group Interventions," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 243-263.
H. Spitz, Group Psychotherapy and Managed Mental Health Care: A Clinical Guide for Providers (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1996).
H. Spitz, "The Effect of Managed Mental Health Care on Group Psychotherapy: Treatment, Training and Therapist Morale Issues," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 23-30.

Page 281

P. Cox et al., "Group Therapy Program Development: Clinician-Administrator Collaborations in New Practice Settings," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 3-24.

Page 284

G. Bach, cited by F. Stoller, "Marathon Group Therapy," in Innovations to Group Psychotherapy, ed. G. Gazda (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1968).
R. Adler, "Reporter at Large," The New Yorker, 15 April 1967, pp. 55-58. New York Times, 20 December 1970.
J. Sohl, The Lemon Eaters (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967).

Page 284

Stoller, "Marathon Group Therapy," in Innovations to Group Psychotherapy, ed. G. Gazda (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1968), 71.
E. Mintz, "Time-Extended Marathon Groups", Psychotherapy, Research and Practice 4 (1967): 65-70.
M. Parloff, "Discussion of F. Stoller's Paper," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 18 (1968): 239-44.
B. Navidzadeh, "The Application of Marathon Group Psychotherapy in Outpatient Clinic Settings," presented at the American Group Psychotherapy Association Convention, Chicago, January 1968.

Page 284

F. Stoller, "Accelerated Interaction: A Time-Limited Approach Based on the Brief Intensive Group," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 18 (1968): 220-235.
N. Dinges and R. Weigel, "The Marathon Group: A Review of Practice and Research," Comparative Group Studies 2 (1971): 339-458.

Page 290

L. Horowitz, J. Vitkis, "The Interpersonal Basis of Psychiatric Symptomatology," Clinical Psychology Review 6 (1986): 443-469.

Page 296

J. Frank and J. Frank, Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy, 3d ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991), 132-153.
E. Uhlenhuth and D. Duncan, "Subjective Change with Medical Student Therapists: II. Some Determinants of Change in Psychoneurotic Outpatients," Archives of General Psychiatry 18 (1968): 532-540.
A. Goldstein and W. Shipman, "Patient Expectancies, Symptom Reduction, and Aspects of the Initial Psychotherapeutic Interview," Journal of Clinical Psychology 17 (1961): 129-133.
P. Martin and A. Sterne, "Prognostic Expectations and Treatment Outcome," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43 (1975): 572-576.
S. Bloch et al., "Patients' Expectations of Therapeutic Improvement and Their Outcomes," American Journal of Psychiatry 133 (1976): 1457-1459.

Page 298

M. Pines, "The Self as a Group: The Group as a Self," in Self-experiences in Group: Intersubjective and Self-psychological Pathways to Human Understanding, ed. I. Harwood and M. Pines (Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1998).

Page 299

A. Hazzard, J. Rogers, L. Angert, "Factors Effecting Group Therapy Outcome for Adult Sexual Abuse Survivors," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 43 (1993): 453-468.

Page 303

S. Taylor, "Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Social Phobia," The Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 27 (1996): 1-9.

Page 304

H. Tinsley, A. Bowman, S. Ray, "Manipulations of Expectancies About Counseling and Psychotherapy," Journal of Counseling Psychology 35 (1988): 171-201.
D. Kivlighan, J. Corazzini, T. McGovern, "Pregroup Training," Small Group Behavior 16 (1985): 500-514.
T. Zarle and S. Willis, "A Pre-Group Training Technique for Encounter Group Stress," Journal of Counseling Psychology 22 (1975): 49-53.
B. Corder et al., "Pre-Therapy Training for Adolescents in Group Psychotherapy: Contracts, Guidelines, and Pre-Therapy Preparation," Adolescence 15 (1980): 699-706.
L. Annis and D. Perry, "Self-Disclosure in Unsupervised Groups: Effects of Videotaped Models," Small Group Behavior 9 (1978): 102-108.
P. Pilkonis et al., "Training Complex Social Skills for Use in a Psychotherapy Group: A Case Study," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 30 (1980): 347-356.
T. Curran, "Increasing Motivation to Change in Group Treatment," Small Group Behavior 9 (1978): 337-348.
M. Cartwright, "Brief Reports: A Preparatory Method for Group Counseling," Journal of Counseling Psychology 23 (1976): 75-77.

Page 304

D. Malamud and S. Machover, Toward Self-Understanding: Group Techniques in Self-Confrontation (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1965).
M. Bettis, D. Malamud, R. Malamud, "Deepening a Group's Insight into Human Relations," Journal of Clinical Psychology 5 (1949): 114-122.
W. Piper and M. Marrache, "Selecting Suitable Patients: Pretraining for Group Therapy as a Method of Patient Selection," Small Group Behavior 12 (1981): 459-475.

Chapter 11

Page 309

K. MacKenzie, Introduction to Time-limited Group Psychotherapy (Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1990).
H. Spitz, Group Psychotherapy and Managed Mental Health Care: A Clinical Guide for Providers (New York: Brunner Mazel, 1996).

Page 310

K. MacKenzie, Introduction to Time-limited Group Psychotherapy (Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1990).

Page 312

M. Pines, "The self as a group: The group as a self", In I. Harwood & M. Pines (Eds.), Self-experiences in Group: Intersubjective and Self-psychological Pathways to Human Understanding (Philadelphia PA: Taylor and Francis, 1998).

Page 312

R.G. Baumeister and M.R. Leary, "The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation", Psychology Bulletin 117(1995):497-529.

Page 313

I. Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1980), 129-141.

Page 313

R. Dies, "Therapist Variables in Group Psychotherapy Research," in Handbook of Group Psychotherapy: An Empirical and Clinical Synthesis, ed. A. Fuhriman and G. Burlingame (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1994) 114-154.

Page 315

H. Rabin, "Peers and Siblings: Their Neglect in Analytic Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 39 (1989): 209-221.
E. Shapiro and R. Ginzberg, "The Persistently Neglected Sibling Relationship and Its Applicability to Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 327-341.

Page 315

I. Yalom, "Freud, Group Psychology, and Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 24 (1974).

Page 317

M. Williams, "Limitations, Fantasies and Security Operations of Beginning Group Psychotherapists," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 16 (1966): 150-162.

Page 340

B. Rasmussen, "Joining Group Psychotherapy: Developmental Considerations," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 49 (1999): 513-528.

Chapter 12

Page 345

M. Nitsun, "The Future of the Group," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 455-472.

Page 346

P. Schlachet, "The Once and Future Group: Vicissitudes of Belonging," Group 24 (2000): 123-132.

Page 350

D. Scaturo and W. McPeak, "Clinical Dilemmas in Contemporary Psychotherapy: The Search for Clinical Wisdom," Psychotherapy 35 (1998): 1-12.

Page 354

J. Coche and E. Coche, Couples Group Psychotherapy: A Clinical Practice Model, (New York: Brunner Mazel, 1990).
B. Feld, "An Object Relations Perspective on Couples Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 315-332.
B. Feld, "Phases of Couples Group Therapy: A Consideration of Therapeutic Action," Group 27 (2003): 5-19.

Page 363

D. Nathanson, "The Nature of Therapeutic Impasse," Psychiatric Annals 22 (1992): 509-513.
C. Hill et al., "Therapist Retrospective Recall of Impasses in Long-Term Psychotherapy: A Qualitative Analysis," Journal of Counselling Psychology, 43 (1996): 207-217.

Page 364

M. Pines, "The Contributions of S. H. Foulkes to Group Analytic Psychotherapy," in Group Therapy, ed. L. Wolberg, R. Aronson, and A. Wolberg (New York: Stratton Intercontinental, 1978).
M. Pines, "Psychoanalysis and Group Analysis," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 33 (1983): 155-169.
S. Foulkes, Therapeutic Group Analysis (New York: International Universities Press, 1964), 81.

Page 366

H. Racker, Transference and Countertransference (New York, International Universities Press, 1968).

Page 366

H. Boris, Envy (Northvale N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1994).

Page 367

E. Post Susemihl, "The Group as an Idealized Internal Object," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 46 (1996): 425-431.

Page 368

J. Gans, "Hostility in Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 39 (1989): 499-517.

Page 370

S. Hassan, C. Cinq-Mars, M. Sigman, "Conflict in Group Therapy of Chronic Schizophrenics: Coping with Aggression," American Journal of Psychotherapy 54 (2000): 243-256.

Page 371

I. Yalom, The Schopenhauer Cure (New York: Harper Collins, 2005).

Page 372

L. Ormont, "Developing Emotional Insulation," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 44 (1994): 361-375.
L. Ormont, "Cultivating the Observing Ego in the Group Setting," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 45 (1995): 489-506.

Page 373

H. Danesh, "The Angry Group," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 77 (1977): 59-65. The author describes a twelve-session therapy group with a protocol carefully structured to help clients deal with anger. Participants describe the situations in which they get angry, read prepared material on anger, choose some expressive medium to vent anger (for example, painting, drawing, clay), and use structured exercises within the group to free themselves from anger.
A. Gerlock, "An Anger Management Intervention Model for Veterans with PTSD," National Center for PTSD Clinical Quarterly 6 (1996): 61-64.

Page 373

D. Coon et al., "Anger and Depression Management: Psychoeducational Skill Training Interventions for Women Caregivers of a Relative with Dementia," Gerontologist 43 (2003): 678-689.

Page 374

S. Cohen, "Working with Resistance to Experiencing and Expressing Emotions in Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 443-458.

Page 374

S. Culbert, "Explorations in Applied Behavioral Science," The Interpersonal Process of Self-Disclosure: It Takes Two to See One 3 (1967).
J. Gans and R. Weber, "The Detection of Shame in Group Psychotherapy: Uncovering the Hidden Emotion," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 381-396.

Page 375

Fonagy (1997) uses the term mentalizing to describe the experience of an individual being thought about and considered in empathic fashion by another. He views this as an essential ingredient of healthy development, and a necessary aspect of effective therapy, particularly for those clients who grew up with self-absorbed, misattuned and neglectful caregivers. The client's experience of being mentalized about in therapy, contributes to the development of a stronger, more secure sense of self. (P. Fonagy, "Multiple Voices Versus Meta-Cognition: An Attachment Theory Perspective," Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 7 (1997): 181-194.)
P. Cohen, "The Practice of Modern Group Psychotherapy: Working with Past Trauma in the Present," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 489-503.

Page 378

S. Gold-Steinberg and M. Buttenheim, "Telling One's Story in an Incest Survivors Group," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 43 (1993): 173-189.

Page 378

A. Storr, Solitude: A Return to the Self (New York: Free Press, 1988).

Page 381

I. Yalom, The Schopenhauer Cure (New York: HarperCollins, 2005) 213-220.

Page 381

J. Sternbach, "Self-Disclosure with All-Male Groups," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 53 (2003): 61-81.
F. Wright, "Being Seen, Moved, Disrupted, and Reconfigured: Group Leadership from a Relational Perspective," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 54 (2004): 235-250.

Page 383

W. Lutz et al., "Prediction of Dose-Response Relations Based on Patient Characteristics," Journal of Clinical Psychology 57 (2001): 889-900.
A promising naturalistic, individual therapy research approach tracks individual client progress using a simple, validated outcome questionnaire. Each client's progress is compared to the progress made by other clients with similar clinical and demographic features. Outcomes are substantially improved when therapists receive this feedback and use it to realign therapy when necessary. This method provides both accountability and clinical flexibility. It enhances clinical judgment without usurping authority from the client-therapist relationship. (W. Lutz, Z. Martinovich, K. Howard, "Patient Profiling: An Application of Random Coefficient Regression Models to Depicting the Response of a Patient to Outpatient Psychotherapy," Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 67 [1999]: 571-577. G. Brown et al., "Pushing the Quality Envelope: A New Outcomes Management System," Psychiatric Services 52 [2001]: 925-934.)

Page 384

J. Kleinberg, "Beyond Emotional Intelligence at Work: Adding Insight to Injury through Group Psychotherapy," Group 24 (2000): 261-278.

Page 386

A. Aviv and R. Springmann, "Negative Countertransference and Negative Therapeutic Reactions: Prognostic Indicators in the Analysis of Severe Psychopathology," Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 26 (1990): 693-715.

Page 388

J. Gans and R. Weber, "The Detection of Shame in Group Psychotherapy: Uncovering the Hidden Emotion," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (2000): 381-396.

Chapter 13

Page 396

M. Leszcz and J. Malat, "The Interpersonal Model of Group Psychotherapy", in Praxis der Gruppen Psychotherapie, ed. V. Tschuschke (Frankfurt, Germany: Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart Publishers, 2001), 355-369.

Page 398

G. Burlingame, A. Fuhriman, L. Johnson, "Cohesion in Group Therapy", in A Guide to Psychotherapy Relationships that Work, ed. J. Norcross (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) 71-88.
W. Piper, A. Joyce, J. Rosie, H. Azim, "Psychological Mindedness, Work and Outcome in Day Treatment," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 44 (1994): 291-311.
M McCallum, W. Piper, J. O'Kelly, "Predicting Patient Benefit from a Group-Oriented Evening Treatment Program," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 47 (1997): 291-314.

Page 402

A. Rachman, "Issues of Power, Control, and Status in Group Interaction: From Ferenczi to Foucault", Group 27(2003):89-105.

Page 404

W. Stone, "Self Psychology and the Higher Mental Functioning Hypothesis: Contemporary Theories," Group Analysis 29 (1996): 169-181.
R. Kowalski, "Whining, Griping and Complaining: Positivity in the Negativity," Journal of Clinical Psychology 58 (2002): 1023-1035.

Page 416

L. Ormont, "Bringing Life into the Group Experience: The Power of Immediacy," Group 20 (1996): 207-222.
L. Ormont, "Cultivating the Observing Ego in the Group Setting," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 45 (1995): 489-502.

Chapter 14

Page 431

L. Ormont, "Principles and Practice of Conjoint Psychoanalytic Treatment," American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (1981): 69-73.

Page 435

K. Porter, "Combined Individual and Group Psychotherapy," In H. Kaplan and B. Sadock (Eds.) Comprehensive Group Psychotherapy (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1993), p. 315-323.

Page 440

D. Brooks, "Introduction to the Special Issue of Group Therapy in Substance Abuse," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 5-10.
H. Spitz, "Group Psychotherapy of Substance Abuse in the Era of Managed Mental Health Care," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 51 (2001): 21-41.

Page 440

K. Graham et al., "A Controlled Field Trial of Group Versus Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Training for Relapse Prevention," Addiction 91 (1996): 1127-1139.

Page 444

M. Leszcz, "Gruppenpsychotherapie fur brustkrebspatientinnen," Psychotherapeut 49 (2004): 314-330.

Page 444

This splitting of roles is consonant with findings by Robert Bales in some well-known research on group leadership (R. Bales, "The Equilibrium Problem in Small Groups," in Working Papers in the Theory of Action, ed. T. Parsons, R. Bales, E. Shils [Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1953], 111-161). Bales studied laboratory task groups of college students discussing some problem in human relations. Almost invariably, two types of leader (as determined by activity ratings and sociometric rankings) emerged from the membership: (1) a "task-executive" leader, the most active member, who spurs the group on and who helps the members perform the primary task; and (2) a social-emotional leader, who attends to the group's emotional needs and reduces tension sufficiently to allow the group to proceed.
S. Hoffman and S. Segal, "The Dialectic Approach in Group Therapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 39 (1989): 413-418.

Page 446

M. Apman and B. Roller, "The Nequipos' Collusion with the Patient's Family of Origin in Analytic Group Psychotherapy," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 45 (1995): 101-110.

Page 450

M. Ullman, Dream Analysis: A Group Approach (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1996).

Page 456

P. Goodwin et al, "Lessons learned from enrollment in the BEST study - a multicenter randomized trial of group psychosocial support in metastatic breast cancer", Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 53(2000):47-55.

Page 457

Many educators have used the summary approach, in a variety of formats, in group dynamics courses. The most common method is to lead the class as an experiential group and have rotating assignments to write a summary that the class critiques. A related approach to the summary is reported by S. Budman, who, toward the end of a six-month brief therapy group, writes each member a detailed letter about his or her work in the group and the changes noted by the leaders. The patients are asked to write similar letters to the therapists about their experience in the group (S. Budman, personal communication, 1994).
D. Wilfley et al., Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Group (New York: Basic Books, 2000).

Page 457

R. Charon, "The Narrative Road to Empathy," in Empathy and the Medical Profession: Beyond Pills and the Scalpel, ed. H. Spiro (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) 147-519.
J. Pennebaker, "Writing about Emotional Experiences as a Therapeutic Process," Psychological Science 8 (1997):162-166.
J. Smyth et al., "Effects of Writing about Stressful Experiences on Symptom Reduction in Patients with Asthma or Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Trial," JAMA 281 (1999): 1304-1309.
G. Bacigalupe, "Letter Writing in Relational Therapies," Journal of Systemic Therapies 22 (2003): 1-2.
Telling one's story provides an opportunity for reflection, integration, disclosure, attribution of meaning, followed by a new sense of personal authorship of one's life. (A. Richert, "Living Stories, Telling Stories, Changing Stories: Experiential Use of the Relationship in Narrative Therapy," Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 13 (2003): 188-210.
H. Davidson and C. Birmingham, "Letter Writing as a Therapeutic Tool," Eating and Weight Disorders 6 (2001): 40-44.

Page 469

A number of compendiums of group exercises have been published:
J. Dossick and E. Shea, Creative Therapy: 52 Exercises for Groups (Sarasota, Fla.: Professional Resource Exchange, 1988).
J. Dossick and E. Shea, Creative Therapy: 52 More Exercises for Groups (Sarasota, Fla.: Professional Resource Exchange, 1990).
A. Remocker and E. Storch, Action Speaks Louder (London: Churchill Livingston, 1979).
J. Pfeiffer and J. Jones, A Handbook of Structured Experiences for Human Relations Training: Reference Guide to Handbooks and Annuals (San Diego: San Diego University Associates, 1983).

Page 474

J. Earley, "A Practical Guide to Fostering Interpersonal Norms in a Gestalt Group," Gestalt Review 4 (2000): 138-151.

Chapter 15

Page 475

R. Klein and V. Schermer, eds., Group Psychotherapy for Psychological Trauma (New York: Guilford Press, 2000).
J. White and A. Freeman, eds., Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Specific Problems and Populations, (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2000).
J. Spira and G. Reed, Group Psychotherapy for Women with Breast Cancer (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2003).

Page 480

B. Cohn, "Recycling Yalom: Using a Systems Analysis to Facilitate Work in Inpatient Groups," Group Analysis 27 (1994): 407-418.
K. MacKenzie and A. Grabovac, "Interpersonal Psychotherapy Group (IPT-G) for Depression," The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 10 (2001): 46-51.

Page 481

M. Leszcz, "Inpatient Group Therapy", In APA Annual Update V. (Washington: AP Press Inc., 1986) pp. 729 743

Page 481

R. Taylor, L. Coombes, H. Bartlett, "The Impact of a Practice Development Project on the Quality of In-patient Small Group Therapy," Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 9 (2002): 213-220.

Page 484

A. Pam and S. Kemker, "The Captive Group: Guidelines for Group Therapists in the Inpatient Setting," International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 43 (1993): 419-438.

Page 489

D. Affonso, "Therapeutic Support during Inpatient Group Therapy," Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 23 (1985): 21-25.

Page 491

See my novel The Schopenhauer Cure for a graphic and extensive illustration of how major adversaries in the group may catalyze change in one another.

Page 493

D. Garrick and C. Ewashen, "An Integrated Model for Adolescent Inpatient Group Therapy," Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 8 (2001): 165-171.

Page 496

M. Viederman, "Presence and Enactment as a Vehicle of Psychotherapeutic Change," Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 8 (1999): 551-560.

Page 497

In many time-limited specialized cognitive-behavioral groups, the therapists define the task in advance and have a protocol for each meeting of the entire life of the group. For example:
J. Miranda, J. Schreckengost, L. Heine, "Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depression," in Focal Group Therapy, ed. M. McJay and K. Paleg (Oakland, Calif.: New Harbinger Publications, 1992).
B. Kirkley et al., "A Comparison of Two Group Treatments for Bulimia," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 53 (1985): 43-48.

Page 509

I. Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1980).

Page 512

J. Holmes, "All You Need Is Cognitive Therapy?" British Medical Journal 324 (2002): 288-294.
P. Ellis, "Review: Cognitive Therapy May Be No More Effective than Other Bona Fide Psychological Therapies for Depression," Evidence Based Mental Health 6 (2003): 25.
G. Parker, K. Roy, K. Eyers, "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression? Choose Horses for Courses," American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003): 825-834.

Page 516

K. MacKenzie and A. Grabovac, "Interpersonal Psychotherapy Group (IPT G) for Depression," The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 10 (2001): 46-51.
D. Wilfley et al., "A Randomized Comparison of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Overweight Individuals with Binge-Eating Disorder," Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002): 713-721.

Page 517

L. Horowitz and J. Vitkis, "The Interpersonal Basis of Psychiatric Symptomatology," Clinical Psychology Review 6 (1986): 443-469.
M. Barkham, G. Hardy, M. Startup, "The IIP-32: A Short Version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems," British Journal of Clinical Psychology 35 (1996): 21-35.

Page 523

F. McTavish et al., "CHESS: An Interactive Computer System for Women with Breast Cancer Piloted with an Underserved Population," Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 18 (1995): 35-41.
B. Shaw et al., "Experiences of Women with Breast Cancer: Exchanging Social Support over the CHESS Computer Network," Journal of Health Communication 5 (2000): 135-159.

Chapter 16

Please see the Complete Chapter 16 (4th edition).

Chapter 17

Page 545

J. de Groot et al., "Psychiatric Residency: An Analysis of Training Activities with Recommendations," Academic Psychiatry, 24 (2000): 139-146.

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See also, Understanding Group Psychotherapy Video Series featuring Irvin D. Yalom.
 

 
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